Top 10 Famous Indian Scientists and their Inventions

Even before the days of Aryabhatta, many great scientists and thinkers were born in India and they have given the world the valuable knowledge in science and mathematics. Amongst other great contributions, we have given the world the concept of atomism in 6th century BC, students’ favourite trigonometry in 5th century AD, zero in 9th century AD and the shining star of the list, Chandrashekhar’s Limit. Here’s a brief snapshot about 10 of the great scientists Indians had a privilege of calling their own and their contributions.

10 Chandra (Moon) – Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was born in a Tamil Iyer family in Lahore, Punjab in 19 October 1910. He obtained his bachelor’s degree in Physics in Presidency College in Madras. Under Government of India’s scholarship, he finished his master’s degree from Cambridge University. He is known for his theory of maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star, now known as “Chandrasekhar limit.” He received Nobel Prize along with William A. Fowler in 1983 for his studies on the physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He received 14 famed international awards for his contributions to the field of science in his lifetime. He died of a sudden heart attack in 1995 in the University of Chicago Hospital.

Chandrasekhar


09 Chandra (Moon) – Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath was conceived on first January, 1894 in Kolkata. He went to Hindu School and after that Administration School, and positioned the first in both spots. At Administration School, he met awesome researchers like Jagdish Chandra Bose and Prafulla Chandra Roy, who motivated him to take up a vocation in experimental examination.

In 1916, he turned into a teacher at the College of Calcutta, and in 1921 proceeded onward to Dhaka College as Educator of Material science. While clarifying an idea of quantum hypothesis in an address, he committed an error. Anyway later on, he thought he hadn’t committed an error however was correct, in light of the fact that it clarified a few certainties which the more seasoned hypothesis proved unable. He recorded his considerations as a logical article. Diaries declined to distribute it, on the grounds that they said it was a mix-up.

Einstein concurred that it wasn’t a mix-up however reality. He made an interpretation of it into German and distributed it in a German diary. This made Bose extremely popular, and he got welcomes from European physicists to visit them. He flew out to Europe in 192426. After India’s segment he moved to Kolkata, where he taught at the college till his retirement in 1956. He kicked the bucket in 1974.

In customary material science, every molecule is unique from one another. You can track every molecule. This is valid for all of all shapes and sizes things like planets, elastic balls and even grains of dust. Anyhow when we go into littler scales, in the same way as subatomic particles (like electrons), the common tenets don’t make a difference. The particles get to be vague, thus we can’t track them. This is the domain of quantum physical science.

S.N. Bose and Albert Einstein together created huge numbers of the standards that apply in quantum physical science. These are as one known as BoseEinstein Insights. While this science is stopped troublesome, it makes an intriguing expectation. It says that iotas, when cooled to a temperature near to total zero (273.15C), will crumple into another condition of matter. This is known as the BoseEinstein Condensate (BEC).

Numerous individuals thought BEC was simply a thought, since it was close difficult to make. In 1995, Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman, of the College of Colorado cooled rubidium molecules to close supreme zero. Their indicator demonstrated the arrangement of a BEC, demonstrating Bose & Einstein right.

Bosons
You can track a solitary particle, however never a solitary photon. Indeed a photon can in the meantime exist in two spots. Two photons can trade places without moving whatsoeve

boson


08 Missile Man – Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, represented considerable authority in Aeronautical Designing from Madras Foundation of Innovation. Dr. Kalam made huge commitment as Venture Chief to add to India’s first indigenous Satellite Dispatch Vehicle (SLV-III) which effectively infused the Rohini satellite in the close earth circle in July 1980 and made India a restrictive individual from Space Club. He was in charge of the development of ISRO’s dispatch vehicle program, especially the PSLV design. In the wake of laboring for two decades in ISRO and mastering dispatch vehicle advancements, Dr. Kalam took up the obligation of creating Indigenous Guided Rockets at Resistance Innovative work Association as the CEO of Incorporated Guided Rocket Advancement Program (IGMDP). He was in charge of the improvement and operationalisation of AGNI and PRITHVI Rockets and for building indigenous ability in basic innovations through systems administration of various organizations. He was the Exploratory Consultant to Guard Pastor and Secretary, Bureau of Resistance Examination & Advancement from July 1992 to December 1999. Amid this period he prompted the weaponisation of vital rocket frameworks and the Pokhran-II atomic tests in a joint effort with Division of Nuclear Vitality, which made India an atomic weapon State. He additionally offered push to confidence in barrier frameworks by advancing various improvement assignments and mission activities, for example, Light Battle Air ship.

As Administrator of Innovation Data, Anticipating and Evaluation Committee (TIFAC) and as a famous researcher, he drove the nation with the assistance of 500 specialists to land at Innovation Vision 2020 giving a guide for changing India from the present creating status to a created country. Dr. Kalam has served as the Vital Experimental Counsel to the Legislature of India, in the rank of Bureau Clergyman, from November 1999 to November 2001 and was in charge of developing arrangements, methods and missions for some improvement applications. Dr. Kalam was likewise the Administrator, Ex-officio, of the Experimental Bulletin Board of trustees to the Bureau (SAC-C) and guided India Thousand years Mission 2020.

Dr. Kalam took up scholastic interest as Educator, Innovation & Societal Change at Anna College, Chennai from November 2001 and was included in showing and exploration errands. Most importantly he took up a mission to touch off the youthful personalities for national improvement by meeting secondary school understudies the nation over.

In his artistic interest four of Dr. Kalam’s books – “Wings of Flame”, “India 2020 – A Dream for the New Thousand years”, “My adventure” and “Touched off Psyches – Unleashing the force inside India” have ended up family unit names in India and among the Indian nationals abroad. These books have been interpreted in numerous Indian dialects.

Dr. Kalam is a standout amongst the most recognized researchers of India with the special honor of accepting privileged doctorates from 30 colleges and organizations. He has been recompensed the desired non military personnel grants – Padma Bhushan (1981) and Padma Vibhushan (1990) and the most astounding regular citizen grant Bharat Ratna (1997). He is a beneficiary of a few different honors and Individual of numerous expert organizations.

Dr. Kalam turned into the eleventh President of India on 25th July 2002. His attention is on changing India into a created country by 2020.
APJ


07 Indian Father of Green Revolution – M. S. Swaminathan

Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan was born in Kumbakonam district of Tamil Nadu in 7 August 1925 in a well-to-do family. He earned his Bachelor’s degree in Zoology in Maharajas College in Trivandrum, Kerala and later went on to again earn a Bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Sciences from Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. He described that his motivation for choosing his career path in agricultural sciences was the Bengal famine of 1943. He then took up a career in plant genetics mainly focussing on plants that served as source of food for humans. He is known as the “Father of Green Revolution in India” for his leadership and success in introducing high yield varieties of wheat and rice in India. He was the first recipient of World Food Prize in 1987. He has worked worldwide in collaboration with students and colleagues on a range of subjects pertaining to plant breeding, agricultural research and development and conservation of natural resources. He has been honored by Government of India with Padma Shri, Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan for his contributions. He is currently the chairman of the National Commission on Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Security of India.

M.-S.-Swaminathan


06 Birdman of India – Salim Ali

Known as the “birdman of India”, Salim Ali was among the first Indians to lead deliberate winged animal overviews crosswise over India. He was conceived in a Sulaimani Bohra Muslim group of Bombay and passed the registration exam of Bombay College in 1913 with incredible trouble.

Commitment: Salim Ali found a chance to lead precise fowl reviews of the august states that included Hyderabad, Cochin, Travancore, Gwalior, Indore and Bhopal with the sponsorship of the leaders of those states. Later on he was exceptionally compelling in guaranteeing the survival of the BNHS and figured out how to spare the then 100-year old establishment by keeping in touch with the then PM Pandit Nehru for monetary help. He helped in the foundation of a financial ornithology unit inside the Indian Board for Farming Exploration.

My chief interest in bird study has always been its ecology, its life history under natural conditions and not in a laboratory under a microscope. By travelling to these remote, uninhabited places, I could study the birds as they lived and behaved in their habitats.
Dr. Salim Ali

Salim is the personification of the educated Indian and interests me a great deal. He is excellent at his own theoretical subjects… His views are astounding.
Richard Meinertzhagen

The-birdman-of-India


05 Raman Effect – C. V. Raman

A standout amongst the most conspicuous Indian researchers ever, C.V. It is hugely astounding that Raman utilized a gear worth just Rs.200 to make this revelation. The Raman Impact is presently analyzed with the assistance of gear worth just about a great many rupees.

The ‘Raman Impact’ is viewed as extremely noteworthy in breaking down the atomic structure of substance mixes. After 10 years of its revelation, the structure of around 2000 mixes was mulled over. Because of the innovation of the laser, the ‘Raman Impact’ has ended up being an extremely valuable instrument for researchers.

C.V. Raman turned into the Individual of the Illustrious Society of London in 1924. After a year, he set up Raman Exploration Establishment close Bangalore, where he proceeded with the experimental examination until his demise which was created by a solid heart assault on November 21, 1970. His earnest counsel yearning for researchers was that “exploratory examination required free thinking and diligent work, not equipment.
c.v.raman


04 Father of Radio Science – Jagdish Chandra Bose

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was born in a Tamil Iyer family in Lahore, Punjab in 19 October 1910. He obtained his bachelor’s degree in Physics in Presidency College in Madras. Under Government of India’s scholarship, he finished his master’s degree from Cambridge University. He is known for his theory of maximum mass of a stable white dwarf star, now known as “Chandrasekhar limit.” He received Nobel Prize along with William A. Fowler in 1983 for his studies on the physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He received 14 famed international awards for his contributions to the field of science in his lifetime. He died of a sudden heart attack in 1995 in the University of Chicago Hospital.

jagdish-chandra-bose


03 Father of Indian nuclear programme – Homi Jehangir Bhabha

Known as the father of Indian Space Program, he was the establishing chief of two extraordinary examination organizations, in particular the Tata Organization of Basic Exploration (TIFR) and the Trombay Nuclear Vitality Foundation. He was conceived in an unmistakable mechanical Parsi family and joined the Carius School of Cambridge College. He passed on in a plane crash in 1966 while heading to Vienna to go to a meeting of the Worldwide Nuclear Vitality Office.

Commitment: Bhabha increased universal noticeable quality in the wake of inferring a right interpretation for the likelihood of diffusing positrons by electrons, a procedure now known as Bhabha dispersing. His real commitment incorporated his work on Compton disseminating, R-process, and furthermore the progression of atomic material science. He did further research to depict how essential universe sized beams from space interface with the upper environment to create particles saw at the ground level. Bhabha later reasoned that perceptions of the properties of such particles would prompt the direct exploratory confirmation of Albert Einstein’s hypothesis of relativity. He is credited with detailing India’s technique in the field of atomic force to concentrate on separating force from the nation’s unfathomable thorium saves instead of its pitiful uranium holds. The methodology proposed by Bhabha to attain to this key target turned into India’s three stage atomic force program.

Scientist, engineer, master-builder and administrator, steeped in humanities, in art and music, Homi was a truly complete man.
JRD Tata

As a person there is one thing about him, he appreciated merit; he would not compromise himself for somebody who did not perform. But if somebody has to perform, he had to be given
time and he would do that, but if he did not performeven then, of course Bhabhawould not tolerate. Mediocrity does not help, particularly in scientific research and advancement of a country.
Dr B V Sreekantan

homi-jahagir-bhabha


02 Bengali Chemist – Prafulla Chandra Ray

Organizer of the Bengal Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, he is known as the father of advanced science in India. An alum from Edinburgh College, he learnt numerous worldwide dialects like Greek, Latin and French . In 1889 Prafulla Chandra was named as Colleague Educator of Science in the Administration School at Calcutta. His commitment to Indian industry was as critical as his commitments to science. Material factories, cleanser manufacturing plants, sugar industrial facilities, synthetic businesses, earthenware production lines and distributed houses were situated up at the time with his dynamic co-operation.

Commitment: In 1896, he distributed a paper on arrangement of another stable concoction compound: Mercurous Nitrite.This work cleared a path for a substantial number of investigative papers on nitrites and hyponitrites of diverse metals, and on nitrites of smelling salts and natural amines. After quite a while of study, Prafulla Chandra distributed his celebrated book, – ‘The Historical backdrop of Hindu Science’ which got awesome recognition from researchers everywhere throughout the world. In this book he has given an exceptionally intriguing record to demonstrate that Hindu researchers thought about the assembling of steel, about refining, salts, mercury sulfides and so on., from ahead of schedule time

Prafulla Chandra became many in the minds of his pupils by diffusing and thereby reactivating himself in many younger minds. But this would hardly have been possible unless he had the capacity to give himself away fully to others.
Rabindranath Tagore

It is difficult to believe that the man in simple Indian dress wearing simple manners could possibly be the great scientist and professor.
M.K.Gandhi

Prafulla Chandra Ray


01 A Man Who Knew Infinity – Srinivasa Ramanujan

Living in India with no access to the larger mathematical community, which was centered in Europe at the time, Ramanujan developed his own mathematical research in isolation. As a result, he sometimes rediscovered known theorems in addition to producing new work. His love for math was so intent, that he lost scholarship and could not get a degree as he failed in every other subject while excelling in maths. Born in a Tamil Brahmin family at Erode, he died at young age if 32 due to liver infection.
CONTRIBUTION: He stated results that were both original and highly unconventional, such as the Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan conjecture and the Ramanujan theta function, and these have inspired a vast amount of further research. He was elected to the London Mathematical Society “for his investigation in Elliptic functions and the Theory of Numbers.” Ramanujan’s series for π converges extraordinarily rapidly (exponentially) and forms the basis of some of the fastest algorithms currently used to calculate π. Ramanujan’s work in partition function gave rise to a powerful new method for finding asymptotic formulae, called the circle method.

As for his place in the world of Mathematics, we quote Bruce C. Berndt: ‘Paul Erdős has passed on to us Hardy’s personal ratings of mathematicians. Suppose that we rate mathematicians on the basis of pure talent on a scale from 0 to 100, Hardy gave himself a score of 25, J.E. Littlewood 30, David Hilbert 80 and Ramanujan 100.
– K. Srinivas Rao

Srinivasa Ramanujan was the strangest man in all of mathematics, probably in the entire history of science. He has been compared to a bursting supernova, illuminating the darkest, most profound corners of mathematics, before being tragically struck down by tuberculosis at the age of 33
– Michio Kaku

The Man Who Knew Infinity


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